The Oriental Carpet Dyeing Process is complex, especially for Modern Oriental Rugs. t all starts with the preparation of yarn in order to make it properly susceptible to the chosen dye. This happens through a process called immersion.
Yarn is immersed in mordant, then dyestuffs are added. The dyed yarn is left to dry, exposed to both air and sunlight. You’ll find that some colors, generally dark ones, require iron mordants. This can damage or fade the fabric.
Once the yarn dries, it can be woven into a pattern. Carpet weavers must be careful to make few mistakes. Otherwise, more yarn may need to go through the dyeing process.
TYPES OF DYE-There are several types of yarn dye, including insect reds, synthetic dyes, and vegetal dyes. Traditionally, dyes were obtained from plants and insects. Later, synthetic dyes were invented and became cheap and easy to use when compared to natural dyes.
Insect reds are perhaps the most interesting dye type, obtained from secretions of scale insects like the Cochineal Scale. Cochineal Dye was formerly exported from India, then from Mexico, and later from the Canary Islands.
Vegetal Dyes include red from Madder Roots, yellow from several plants including onions and Euphorbia, black from apples and acorns, and blue from Indigo. Green and orange were generated by double dyeing with certain colors like blue, yellow, and red.
Because yellow and brown dyestuffs vary from region to region, the analysis of a dye could provide information about the origin of a specific oriental area rug.
Finally, there are synthetic dyes for Modern Oriental Rugs, available in nearly every color and shade imaginable.